« Return to video

State of Content Accessibility in 2020 [TRANSCRIPT]

JACLYN LEDUC: So thank you so much for joining us today for the webinar entitled “State of Content Accessibility.” My name is Jaclyn Leduc from 3Play Media, and I’m joined today by E. Foley from Level Access. So thank you so much, E., for being here today. So with that, let’s move into a quick overview of the presentation.

All right. On my agenda, I’ll be covering video accessibility snapshots, meaning I’ll provide some stats that give insight into the world of online video and accessibility. After that, I’ll get into some of the major findings from 3Play Media’s Annual State of Captioning Survey. Finally, I will cover some video accessibility tips specific to captioning for social media video and live and recorded video. And then we will do a Q&A session at the end of the presentation, like I mentioned, but feel free to write questions in the chat windows at anytime. And then I’ll compile them for the end.

And then, E., if you just want to go over your agenda as well.

E. FOLEY: Sure. Hey, everybody, I’m E. from Level Access. And those are my cute little doggos on the screen. I always manage to squeeze them into every presentation because they’re really cute.

So I’ll be covering some of the results from the State of Digital Accessibility Survey and specifically going into the results about content accessibility, so websites, blog posts, social media, digital documents, that kind of stuff. And then I’ll give you some content accessibility tips. So even if you are not a tech person, you can definitely do things to improve the accessibility of your content. And then we’ll do Q&A at the very end.

JACLYN LEDUC: Thanks. Thanks, E. That’s awesome. Looking forward to that.

OK. I thought a good way to start this presentation would be to introduce accessibility and talk about what it means. Accessibility is about creating equal access and inclusivity both in physical and digital spaces. In order for something to be accessible, it must offer an equivalent experience for everyone, including those with disabilities. In the context of physical spaces, this can mean providing ramps so that people with and without mobility issues can safely and easily enter the building. Online accessibility refers to equal access to digital information.

The content and design must provide the most convenient and all-encompassing experience possible to prevent any level of exclusion. This could mean ensuring that any user can navigate a web page by using only their keyboard. It could also mean ensuring that videos provide captions so that people who are deaf and hard of hearing can access and watch that content.

On the screen here, I’ve written the word “accessibility.” And there’s an arrow pointing to another word spelled A-1-1-Y, or ally. A11y is another term for accessibility and depicts that there are 11 letters between the A and the Y in accessibility. Many people who either work in accessibility or are advocates for it use A11y and accessibility interchangeably.

In the context of this presentation, I’ll be referring mainly to online video, which has blown up over the last decade or so. To put it in perspective, 82% of the world’s internet traffic will be from video content by 2022. If you can just try to imagine how much internet traffic there is on a daily basis, then it is pretty incredible to imagine that video makes up a lot of that. Online video is also the number one form of media used in content strategy. So it has been heavily adopted as the go-to marketing content for brands.

Another stat from HubSpot reveals that 55% of people view online videos every day. So needless to say, people love watching online videos. If these few stats show us anything, it’s that online video is not going anywhere. In fact, it’s increasing in relevancy as time goes on. And as that happens, it’s so important that we keep video accessibility at the forefront because we can’t forget that people with disabilities deserve equal access to online video. And without accessibility, there is no equal access.

OK. Let’s talk a bit about video accessibility stats. In this presentation, I’m specifically covering captioning and who it affects and benefits. But it’s important to note that captioning is not the only element of an accessible video. There’s also audio description, video player accessibility, and other things. So keep that in mind moving forward.

466 million people in the world are deaf or hard of hearing. For someone who is deaf, they can’t consume video audio. They need captions to follow along with dialogue and sound effects. For people who are hard of hearing, it may be difficult to follow along with the audio without captions. So for this reason, captions are critical for accessibility.

One stat that tends to be shocking is that 80% of people who use captions are not deaf or hard of hearing. They use captions for other reasons and find them helpful for different use cases. This shows that the benefit of captioning goes above and beyond its intended use and that anyone can use them to better consume video.

Finally, there are 5 million English language learners in US public schools. And the reason I bring this up is captioned videos can help language development and make it easier for the viewer to follow along with the dialogue. These stats show that video accessibility and, in this case, captioning specifically matters for so many people. So it’s important that we all make it a priority.

OK. So we made it. Time to go over some of the results from the 2020 State of Captioning Survey. OK. What is the state of captioning? So we want to capture a pulse on video accessibility priorities from year to year, which is part of the reason why we conduct an annual State of Captioning Survey.

This survey is a yearly snapshot, and it helps us to track progression of captioning practices and behaviors across multiple industries like education, government, media and entertainment. It presents us with fresh data focused on captioning behaviors, automatic captioning, and other practices. It really lets us get the big picture of captioning for online video and to understand the what, why, and how for captioning.

Some of the findings that I’ll be sharing with you today will go into captioning behaviors and perspectives, automatic captioning, social media video captioning, and then some of the barriers and drivers for captioning. So let’s dive in.

I want to start off by sharing what I think are some of the most interesting takeaways from this year’s survey. 64% of respondents are captioning all or most of their online video content. This has grown from 6% in 2019, suggesting that captioning as a priority is growing across industries.

Overall, the level of understanding of legal compliance for captioning has grown. Confidence and understanding grew from 22% in 2019 to 32% in 2020. So that’s quite a big leap for just one year. I do wonder if this spike in legal compliance awareness comes from the growing number of digital accessibility lawsuits. So perhaps there’s more urgency to be aware of captioning and accessibility requirements.

Finally, I’m always interested to see what drives people to caption their video content. From year to year, it typically remains the same. Once again, the number one driver for captioning is legal compliance followed by accommodation requests, better engagement, and enhanced learning.

All right. Next, let’s get into captioning behaviors and perspectives. Here, we seek to find out how much are people captioning, where are they captioning, and what is their outlook on captioning needs? 42% of all content has been captioned, as reported in the 2020 State of Captioning. The amount of video produced annually did not significantly affect captioning quantity, meaning people are opting to caption all of their video content regardless of how much video they’re creating.

YouTube and Facebook are the most-used online platforms for captioned videos. And 30% expect caption needs to increase both moderately and significantly. The fact that 30% foresee their captioning needs increasing this year into next shows that captioning is not going away, it’s only going to grow, and that demand will increase. This likely correlates with the growth of online video that I spoke to earlier.

There are different processes for captioning online video content. One way involves human captioners, and another way uses ASR, or Automatic Speech Recognition, to create what we call automatic captions. The reason we ask about auto-captions in the State of Captioning is because they can be very inaccurate, and we want to gauge the level of awareness around this fact and also determine how people use them.

41% start with auto-captions and then edit them in-house. This is important because editing auto-captions before publishing is critical for ensured accuracy. 32% don’t use auto-captions at all. And only 2% reported the use of only automatic captions without editing. So that’s good.

64% use auto-captions for educational content in 2020, as opposed to 37% in 2019. The growth here is a bit alarming simply because auto-captions are inaccurate, and accuracy is critical for all video content, especially when it comes to educating students.

56% said no when asked if recorded videos with auto-captions provide a fully accessible experience for all viewers. Automatic captions only work for recorded video content if they are edited for accuracy and quality before publishing. Otherwise, they can range anywhere from 50% to 90% accuracy, depending on certain factors like sound quality, word pronunciation, and multiple speakers.

More than ever before, video is becoming the preferred medium for people on social media to reach their audience and for viewers to engage with the accounts they love. We are always curious to learn how people are prioritizing captioning for their social media videos, which is why we ask about it in the survey. Accessibility and engagement are the top drivers for captioning social videos, which is great news since some of the top benefits of captioning is that it provides greater access to people with disabilities and improves the viewing experience for everyone.

36% use Instagram to publish captioned video. Yet Instagram does not support sidecar caption files. Most likely, this group is embedding captions in their videos, which is fine, but there is certainly room for social media platforms to improve their accessibility. So through social video, we can tell stories. And with captions and accessible video, in general, we can connect with more people.

OK. So let’s take a quick moment to do some sharing before moving on. I’m curious to know what are your main barriers for captioning, or, on the other hand, what are your main drivers? I’ll give you a few moments to comment in the chat window, if you’re comfortable.

So I’m seeing some come in saying time and cost, resources. Yeah, the amount of time it takes to accurately caption. Live captioning is complicated. Cost and time. Resources. Yeah, so a lot of these are similar. Yeah, all right. Thank you, everyone.

So barriers and drivers are important because, while an organization may value accessibility and the power of captions, budget can be an extreme barrier to making skilled captioning practices a reality. Similarly, we do like to see what motivates people to caption.

Each year, interestingly enough, drivers and barriers remain similar. So in the 2020 survey, 25% reported that caption drivers are legal compliance and providing an enhanced learning experience. Cost and budget remain the top barriers to captioning from year to year.

Additionally, this year, 20% of respondents reported a $0 captioning budget. Budget increases remain stagnant even as captioning demand increases. So that goes hand in hand with budgets being a barrier, as many of you brought up in the chat window. Some organizations don’t have a budget at all. And that is certainly difficult.

We do provide for blog posts that go over how to work with smaller budgets when captioning is needed. For instance, we have one blog that covers how organizations with $0 budgets caption their content successfully. So there are some tips in there. And we will share that link with you later on in the follow-up email.

So that concludes the major findings from the State of Captioning. But before we head on to E.’s portion of the webinar, I’d like to cover a few captioning tips for recorded, live, and social media video content. The tips I have on this slide are for recorded video.

The first tip– determine the type of captions you need. So depending on the use case or the video platform you use, captions can either be published as a sidecar file, such as an SRT file, or they can be embedded in the video itself and presented as one element. So depending on where you’re publishing your videos, it could determine which type of captions you need.

Next tip, and this is a big one, is to make accuracy a priority. Accuracy is key to accessibility. So strive to reach a 99% accuracy rate or higher if possible. You should aim to follow WCAG, or “Wi-cag,” DCMP, which is the Described and Captioned Media Program, and FCC captioning guidelines. Depending on what industry you’re in or what type of organization you are will determine which guidelines you should follow, but anyone can use them as reference. These quality guidelines cover captioning best practices such as correct color contrast for captions, speaker labels, sound effects, and formatting.

For live video, it is worth noting that live captions help make live video more accessible. WCAG 2.1 AA guidelines says captions should be provided for all live video content, like live meetings, presentations, webinars, and virtual events. Though it helps to make live video more accessible, live captioning, at this time, is not perfect. Both with human live captioning and auto live captioning, there are things that can affect caption accuracy. At the moment, it’s difficult to ensure the same level of caption accuracy for live content, as opposed to recorded content. If you plan to record live content and host it on your site or another video platform afterwards, it’s encouraged that you either edit the live caption file or provide a new caption file that is at least 99% accurate.

And there are things you can do to help improve live caption accuracy. Be sure to check for a strong network connection, provide crisp audio, and using a microphone helps with this, try to reduce background noise. Having one speaker at a time helps with clarity as well as speaking clearly with correct pronunciation. So do your best to provide all of these elements.

So I’m nearing the end of my portion of the webinar. I’ll end with some captioning tips for social video. Take note of which social platforms support captions as a sidecar file. YouTube, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter all support SRT caption files, which is commonly used for online videos. Instagram does not support SRT files at this time. So you would have to embed the captions into the video itself and upload as one element.

Be sure to provide captions for livestream when possible. For Instagram Live stream, I don’t believe that live captions are supported. It’s not the same level of accessibility as captioning, but if you are doing an Instagram Live feed, you can provide followers with a link to the video script or a transcript beforehand, or just simply choose a platform that supports live captions for your livestream.

And that leads to my last point. If captions truly are not an option, you should provide a transcript at the very least. If you’re sharing a short video, you can even use the transcript as the post’s caption, the portion underneath. In social media, where people typically do like a personal caption, you can put your transcript there if it’s short enough. If it’s a longer transcript, you can provide a link to the transcript or put the link in the comments.

So that concludes my portion of this webinar. Thank you for your attention. Like I said, if you have any questions, please type them in the chat windows. We’ll compile them to answer at the end. But we’ll now be moving on to part 2 of the webinar, so I’ll now pass things off to E.

E. FOLEY: Thank you, Jaclyn.

All right. So Level Access recently did the State of Digital Accessibility Survey. It’s our second year doing the survey. And we track the progression of all digital accessibility practices. So there’s a little bit of overlap between the questions we ask and that 3Play asks. So figured I would let them cover their thing and we’ll cover our part.

We track the current trends in web and mobile accessibility across a lot of different industries. We’ve got a lot of people from financial services, from education, from various markets covered under the ADA, so retail. We’ve got a lot of government agencies, both state and federal. So lots of different industries in our survey. And we try to paint the picture of what’s going on with digital accessibility. How are companies making their technology accessible to people with disabilities?

Why is my thing not going forward? Oh, there it goes. Yay.

All right. So the big takeaways for us– inclusion tops the list of drivers for accessibility. We had nearly 68% of people that said that their organization feels compelled to be inclusive of people with disabilities. So that is just really heartwarming for us. We’re just thrilled to hear that people are starting to actually realize that it’s important to be inclusive of everyone.

The number one challenge that people had as far as accessibility was shifting accessibility left, which what we mean by that is saying thinking about accessibility earlier in the development lifecycle. So don’t wait until you’ve already published your brand new website to think about, oh crap. Is this thing accessible or not? It’s a thing that should be thought about way earlier. And when you do think about accessibility earlier in the lifecycle, you actually end up spending way less money and way less time making things accessible. We had 58% of survey respondents that said that they were struggling to move accessibility earlier.

And one of the biggest barriers we had to accessibility was content velocity. And any of you here who are marketers or in education, you know that you’re publishing a ton of content. It’s every day, multiple times a day, many different people publishing at the same time. And 44% of our respondents said that there were just too many content creators, and it was really difficult for them to make sure everything was accessible.

All right. So I have a little video here. And I’m going to play you some of it. Meaghan, here, is one of our business analysts at Level Access. And we did a quick demo video to kind of show you what using Twitter with a screen reader looks like and sounds like. So she has her screen reader running.

And I really want you guys, once you get the slides tomorrow, to check this out because this was a really hard video to caption because there’s multiple speakers. We have Meaghan speaking about what she’s doing. And then her screen reader is reading out what’s happening on her screen. So super hard, definitely something that automatic captioning could never do just because it would just assume everything is the same speaker. So we will skip over that. I’m sorry, guys. Doo, duh, doo.

All right. So moving on to content velocity. So 45% of folks who are in content production said that they update their content on their websites daily or several times a day. So definitely a ton of content being put out there. And we took a look at HubSpot’s survey– they do a survey of marketers– and they found out that 70% of organizations are actively investing in content marketing. So they’re putting out blog posts, and ebooks, and webinars, and infographics, and all that good stuff. And as far as accessibility, 71% of people with disabilities will leave a website immediately if it’s not accessible.

There is a really great survey out there called the Click-Away Pound. And it was done in the UK. They surveyed people with disabilities about whether retail websites worked for them and what happens when they run into a website that’s not accessible. And less than 10% of people will actually contact customer service. They will just leave. So it’s really important to make sure things are accessible because you really only have one chance to get it right in a lot of cases.

All right. So for content creators, like I said before, we have many accessibility challenges that are caused by having just too many content creators. And that number increased to 49% if you looked at just public sector organizations, and all the way up to 61% for educational institutions and educational services. So lots of content. It’s really hard to deal with when there’s a lot of people. And one of the things that people said was that they had a lot of issues with training.

Oh, there we go. My slide was not moving. So here’s some accessibility tips for your web content. Some of these may be things you already know about, which is awesome. And some are things that you might not know about.

The first step is to always use your heading tags. So you’ll see the H1, H2, H3, and so forth. Those are very, very important for people who are using screen readers because they aren’t able to skim a website visually. They have to skim with their screen reader. And so they will press a hotkey which will skip them from heading to heading. So if your headings aren’t actually tagged, then they’re just going to have to read the whole page to find what they need. And nobody’s got time for that.

So a lot of times what we’ll see is there’s people who will substitute a font style for heading tags. So they’ll put it in bold. They’ll increase the size and so forth. And while that might look like a heading for someone who is sighted, it does not function as a heading for people who are using screen readers.

The second one is to write really good alt text. So alternative text is going to be what a screen reader user will hear when they get to an image. So if you have an image that is informative in some way, it needs to have alt text. If it’s just pretty and decorative, it does not need alt text. A lot of things we’re having problems with right now are people who are putting important health-related information about coronavirus in an image, and then they’re not putting alt text with it. So if you’re sighted, great, you can get that information, but if you’re not, then you can’t.

Third thing for web content is to make sure that you are linking properly. If you take the text of a link, it should be able to stand on its own and make sense. So you don’t want to do a one-word link or a Click Here link. It should be something like Click Here to Download the Webinar or Click Here to View the Video, something where it’ll stand by itself.

And the other thing is to check your color contrast. So WCAG 2.0 level AA, which is what most people shoot for, requires a contrast ratio of at least 4.5 to 1 for normal text and 3 to 1 for large text. There are free resources you can use online where you can plug in the colors that you’re using, and it will tell you whether or not you’re compliant. So you can play around with colors and make sure that everything is contrasted correctly.

Why did I go backwards? There it goes.

All right. So webinar accessibility. We are on a webinar right now. And unfortunately, because that’s just how it works, we are having issues with our live captioner, so we have automatic captions going. Jaclyn and I are doing our best to speak as clearly as we can.

So for the organizations that answered our survey and that said that they host webinars, 24% of them said their webinars were not accessible. 29% of them said that they offer live captioning, which is normally what we would do here and normally what Level Access does. We hire a captioner, and they type the captions as it happens. And 26% of webinar hosts said that they have their slides in an accessible format.

So some accessibility tips for your webinars. Definitely check your platform. Your webinar platform is kind of the biggest thing, right? So we use Zoom here. We also use Zoom at Level Access. It is pretty darn good for accessibility as far as platforms go. What you can do if you use a different webinar platform is try to access all the features of your webinar platform without using a mouse. So see if you can use Tab and Space Bar and Enter and navigate through your webinar as a guest and see how that works.

Accessible slides are actually pretty easy to do. If you’re using PowerPoint, there’s an accessibility checker that is right within PowerPoint that you can click on, and it will help you to fix any accessibility issues you have in your slides. So it will tell you if you’re missing alt text on your images. It will tell you if you need to play with your headings, all that good stuff, will do it right in there. And it has help text. And it’s really, really useful.

If you can hire a captioner, please do. It makes it so much better to have really accurate captions, if you can have a captioner.

And also for webinars, check your color contrast. So again, lots of free tools online that you can use to double check your color contrast. And if you set your template decks for your webinars, you can have those colors already on there, and it will be all good.

All right. Moving onto documents. So while video content is, obviously, super popular, there’s still plenty of digital documents. There’s white papers, ebooks, infographics, case studies, all sorts of things being published. A lot of times people are publishing as PDFs.

And we asked in the State of Digital Accessibility Survey, how are you doing with your PDF accessibility? 18% said their PDFs were not accessible. And 15% of people said that they outsource that task. There were people who said that they outsource it for bigger projects or more complicated PDFs, but they do the simple ones in-house.

For organizations that have large accessibility teams, which we kind of quantified as having more than 10 people that are doing mostly accessibility as their jobs, those organizations actually outsource documents 34% of the time. So they clearly had bigger fish to fry and were more willing to outsource something like document accessibility.

So accessibility tips for documents. Use proper tags for structure. So same thing as we’re doing the H1, H2 tags for websites, you need to make sure that your documents are also properly tagged for structure. Same thing as before– writing really good alt text for any of your images that are conveying meaning, and making sure that your links are done properly so they make sense on their own, and having good color contrast.

Again, for accessibility checkers, if you’re using Microsoft products, that accessibility checker is built right in. And it is very useful. And then Adobe Acrobat Pro also has a built-in checker that you can use. Beyond that, if you know someone who uses a screen reader, if you have one in your organization, you could always have them go through and make sure that everything is working correctly.

Social media accessibility. So once again, going back to our friends at HubSpot, 74% of organizations are actively investing in social media marketing. And for our survey, we asked people about whether they’re doing accessibility best practices for social media, and we had about half of people said that they do.

And accessibility tips for social media. Again, alt text. I don’t know if you all remember, but there was a day on Facebook when all of the images were broken. And people were freaked out because there were no images on Facebook. And what was showing up was actually the automated alt text. And it would say things like, in this image, person, comma, dog. So really bad alt text is what’s happening with a lot of the automatic-generated alt text.

So in your social media, make sure that you’re going in there and editing your alt text and actually writing legitimate alt text, especially if you’re sharing stuff that has words on it. So again, we’re seeing lots of coronavirus information being shared. And a lot of those things on social media aren’t having any alt text attached to them. So someone who is blind or has low vision isn’t able to access that information.

So for links for social media, it is important to be clear about what people should expect when they click the link. So if you can put a little parentheses after the link to say that it’s a PDF or to say that it’s a video, that is really helpful for everyone, not just people with disabilities.

Hashtags are great. A lot of people use hashtags. And we recommend for accessibility using camel case, which is capitalizing the first letter of each word if you’re doing a hashtag with multiple words. A screen reader will read it out as “hashtags are great” versus “hashtagsaregreat.” So definitely use your capital letters. It makes it a lot easier for screen readers to read. It also makes it a lot easier for people who have dyslexia or other issues with reading.

And emoji. They are accessible. In fact, the iconic poop emoji is usually “smiling pile of poo.” But take it really easy on emoji because they will be read out loud by screen readers. And nobody wants to hear red heart, red heart, red heart, red heart, red heart, red heart. So maybe one or two, but not a dozen of them.

All righty. We are down to the question section. So I will throw it back to the 3Play folks to get us some questions.

JACLYN LEDUC: OK. We both, Level Access and 3Play, provide a portal of resources, so feel free to check that out any time if you want to learn more about accessibility. Right now, Level Access is offering free accessibility consultations for COVID-19-related content. So we will also share that link in tomorrow’s email. So you can check that out if you are interested.

Finally, if you would like to really grow your knowledge for video accessibility, we do offer a free video accessibility course where you learn the ins and outs of online video accessibility practices. And that can be found at 3playmedia.com/certification.

All right. So let’s move to the Q&A. And we compiled some of your questions that you’ve asked throughout. So I will read those out, and we’ll answer those. So the first question I have here is for E. “Do screen readers read CSS correctly?”

E. FOLEY: So they will, but it’s going to depend on what parts of the CSS you’re talking about. So if you have things in your CSS that determine what size and font your headings will be, then you’re going to be using those heading tags, basically, to trigger that CSS, right? So you’re going to put H2, and then your CSS will know, oh, H2 is this font and this size. So they will play nice together. If it’s something a little more technical, you can ask some follow-up questions, and I can ask someone who knows a little more techie stuff and get back to you on that.

JACLYN LEDUC: Awesome. Thank you. The next question is for me, I believe. “If a video is captioned, should it always offer a transcript? In terms of content accessibility, are transcripts as important as captions?”

Because captions are time synced with the video, they are more accessible to people who are deaf or hard of hearing because they can follow along as the video plays and see what dialogue or sound effects are coming through in tandem with what they’re seeing onscreen. So including a transcript doesn’t hurt, but if you can’t, for some reason, provide captions, you should at least provide a transcript. However, if the video has sound or dialogue, then a transcript alone usually isn’t sufficient for accessibility reasons. Always try to do closed captions or embedded captions because that is more accessible.

OK. Another question I have here is for E. “Can you recommend the online tools that allow you to measure contrast between text and background?”

E. FOLEY: Ooh, yes. So if you go onto levelaccess.com, we have some free tools there. Actually, it says Download Free Tools. So we have an accessible color picker that you can download. It’s a Chrome extension. And it will allow you to double check your colors for contrast on your website.

JACLYN LEDUC: Awesome, thank you. The next question I have here is, “Where is 99% captioning accuracy referenced in the law?”

There is not a law that references 99% accuracy. It’s an industry standard. A 99% accuracy rate means that there is a 1% chance of error or a leniency of 15 errors total per 1,500 words. Neither technology nor humans can deliver a 100% accuracy typically, but this is the highest we can get for helping with comprehension. And we believe that it is the most successful way to present captions and video.

I have another question just for both of us. “How many respondents were in each of your surveys?” So, E., do you know that off the top of your head?

E. FOLEY: Yes. We had 1,119 people that took our survey this year.

JACLYN LEDUC: Oh, that’s awesome. We didn’t quite reach that. We had 624. So hopefully that helps. Let’s see. We have time for maybe a couple more questions.

“Do any captioning services identify when there is another speaker or multiple speakers?” It’s important that closed captions always identify speakers and depict when there is a change in speakers. Captioning services that follow captioning quality standards will most likely provide speaker labels, but you should ask if you’re unsure what their protocol is and probably pick a provider that does follow captioning quality standards.

OK. Looking through the questions. “Is there a benefit to sidecar versus embedded captions?” Sidecar captions is like an SRT file or other caption formats that you can use for online video. It allows users to turn captions on or off. So that is the benefit, is that they can be turned on and off.

Embedded captions are burned into a video. And so for that reason, they’re good for social media. For instance, like I had mentioned, Instagram doesn’t take SRT caption files, so you would have to embed the captions. So it’s a benefit when you can provide that type of caption video versus adding a separate caption file.

OK. So I think we’re actually going to wrap it up. We’re coming in to 3 o’clock. Thank you, everyone, so much for being with us today. We hope you enjoy–