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FCC’s New Quality Standards for Closed Captioning of Video Programming

  • As of February 20, 2014, the FCC has released a new declaratory ruling regarding content quality for closed captioning of video programming. This is a much-needed clarification for many about quality standards across platforms, although the FCC ruling applies specifically to television.

    However, as the FCC states in their report, quality standards for television closed captioning are of increasing importance because they dictate the standard for online video, as well: the passage of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA) requires that online video that previously aired on television have captioning “of at least the same quality as when such programs are shown on television.” Particularly with the CVAA’s deadline on March 30th 2014 recently passed (which requires archived video to be captioned within 45 days), the FCC’s new content quality standards will have a notable impact not just on television programs, but also on online video.

    So what are the new quality standards? Basically, the new rules address four aspects of quality: accuracy, synchronicity, program completeness, and placement. The FCC believes that these components are essential in ensuring accessibility. Let’s take a look at each of these more carefully.

    FCC Rules for Caption Accuracy

    The FCC states, “In order to be accurate, captions must match the spoken words in the dialogue, in their original language (English or Spanish), to the fullest extent possible and include full lyrics when provided on the audio track.” More specifically, they require captions to include all words spoken in the order spoken (i.e., no paraphrasing). This also means that the captions must use proper spelling, spacing between words, capitalization, and punctuation.

    Further, they differentiate that accurate captions must convey the tone of the speaker’s voice and intent of the content. The goal here is for captions to maintain the impact of the performance so that the overall message is not lost on the viewer.

    The FCC also includes that captions of nonverbal information (sound effects, music playing, audience reactions, who is speaking) must be provided if they are to be considered accurate.

    FCC Rules for Caption Synchronicity

    The FCC states, “In order to be synchronous, captions must coincide with their corresponding spoken words and sounds to the greatest extent possible.” It also denotes that the captions must occur at a speed that can be read by viewers. And, if a program is edited for rebroadcast, it requires that captions be reformatted to provide accurate synchronization.

    FCC Rules for Program Completeness

    Here, the FCC states, “In order for a program’s captions to be complete, captions must run from the beginning to the end of the program, to the fullest extent possible.” Many people have complained that captions drop off in the middle or before the end of programming, despite efforts on the part of the Commission to minimize this issue. Now, any program that does not include captions up to its conclusion will be in violation of these standards.

    FCC Rules for Caption Placement

    In response to complaints that some captions obscure important information, the FCC states that “captions should not block other important visual content on the screen including, but not limited to, character faces, featured text (e.g., weather or other news updates, graphics and credits), and other information that is essential to understanding a program’s content when the closed captioning feature is activated.” As an example, if you are watching a documentary and there is text in the bottom of the screen that states who the speaker is and what their profession is, closed captioning cannot be placed over this text, as it would obscure the information.

    The new guidelines go on to require that captions not run off the edge of the screen and that the text be sized appropriately for legibility.

    Learn about vertical caption placement

    How Accurate Is Accurate?

    Most vendors that provide pre-recorded programming (when a program is produced in advance and then captioned before airing) propose caption accuracy rates that are almost perfect. At 3Play Media, our average measured accuracy is 99.6%, and we guarantee over 99%, even in cases of poor audio quality, multiple speakers, difficult content, and accents.

    The FCC’s standards do allow some leniency for captioning live programming: “Although we recognize the need for a slight delay in the delivery of captions for live programming, the delay in the presentation of live captions should be kept to a minimum, consistent with an accurate presentation of what is being said and the overall goal of ensuring that captions enable viewers to follow the program.”

    It is important to note that even before these new standards, it was possible for live programming to be captioned at a high rate of accuracy. For instance, the U.S. House of Representatives provides real-time verbatim closed-captioning of televised proceedings. Their requirements? The contractor should provide 98.6% accuracy of verbatim captioning.

    The new FCC quality rules should compel live programming to be captioned universally at this high of an accuracy rate.

    Implications for Online Video

    Because captions for video programming must adhere to the FCC’s new guidelines, there will be an improvement in quality. And, because online video of previously aired content must have captions of at least the same quality, the quality of online captioning will inherently improve, as well. More directly, if we are looking at pre-recorded programming to be placed online, accuracy rates should be almost perfect.

    The new guidelines leave little room for error, and will hopefully lead to a noted improvement in captioning quality across both video and online programming.

8 Responses to FCC’s New Quality Standards for Closed Captioning of Video Programming

  1. Beverly Wehrli says:

    In a segment on MSNBC where the topic was the crisis between Israel and Hamas, it was mentioned that Kerry was going to adjudicate between the two parties. However, the closed caption read as follows: Kerry was going to adjewdicate… Misspelling is one thing, but I consider this to be an editorialization which was completely uncalled for. A similar thing occurred at the democratic convention when Obama was introduced and the caption read: black applause. I believe these two instances violate the guidelines and should be dealt with accordingly.

  2. Jason says:

    I am getting the feeling this clarification is for Broadcast TV but how does this play for Education and having repositories of online lectures and special events? We Cc for request only and there isn’t a clear answer if we have to do it for all or just as the need warrants the service?

    • Lily Bond says:

      Hi Jason,

      You are correct that the FCC’s quality standards apply to Broadcast video programming. In regards to being proactive vs reactive for Education, there isn’t a clear answer and it’s open to legal interpretation. Many people choose to be proactive and caption all video content not only for accessibility compliance but also because captions provide numerous benefits to all students. You might find our 2014 Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education useful: http://info.3playmedia.com/wp-web-accessibility.html

  3. Caspar says:

    Hi Lily,

    What about any in-language content such as Hindi or Chinese for cultural channels? Are in-language Closed Captions required under AODA? I’m trying to find it online, but I can’t find anything that specifies whether it’s required for non-alphabet languages. Can you provide any clarity on this? Thanks.

  4. Emily says:

    What is WCAG’s accuracy requirement? I see it looks like 98% is required by FCC, but is that true for 508 or WCAG?

  5. Cynthia J Beahm says:

    My husband and I only have slight hearing loss but have been using Closed Captioning to help fill in the blanks. We have been appalled at what those who are truly deaf have to deal with. Often times the Closed Captioning is intelligible—as if a foreign language and the meaning of conversation is lost. If I were the parent of a deaf child, I would seriously be in fear of my child having their learning impaired by the careless, incompetent translation put on the screen. I was going to complain to the company that did the captioning, but noticed its multiple companies. It honestly appears that they do not perform quality control AND their employees know it and don’t care what they are typing. This is a systemic problem and I am writing well after the supposed implementation of new quality standards.

  6. Kent says:

    I understand that captions are not supposed to obscure other important textual information, but it seems that often the solution to that is to obscure faces instead, approximately 1/3rd vertically from the top of the screen. Either they should appear at the very top or, preferably, just above the other text. Sometimes a channel’s logo takes up so much of the bottom of the screen, captions are permanently in the 1/3rd position for the duration of the broadcast.

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