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Web Accessibility & Closed Captioning Laws

US Federal Accessibility LawsJump to Top

  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    The ADA is a broad, anti-discrimination law for people with disabilities. Titles II and III of the ADA affect web accessibility and closed captioning.

    Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local and state level. Governmental organizations must ensure “effective communication” with citizens, including providing assistive technology or services as needed.

    Title III prohibits disability discrimination by “places of public accommodation.” A place of public accommodation covers shared or public entities like libraries, universities, hotels, museums, theaters, transportation services, etc., that are privately owned. Video displayed within or distributed by such places must be captioned.

    Both Title II and Title III offer a disclaimer about instances where such accommodation would create an “undue hardship” for the organization. This is often the crux of arguments in ADA lawsuits about whether or not an organization must provide closed captioning. Another point of contention is whether or not a purely online business can be considered a “place of public accommodation.”

    Whom this law applies to:

    Municipal and state offices and facilities; museums; libraries; schools, colleges & universities; theaters & cinemas; convention centers & arenas; train stations & airports; hotels; parks; hospitals and clinics; pharmacies; restaurants; retail stores & malls; day care facilities; potentially, online services or products that are made publicly available.

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    How the ADA Impacts Online Video Accessibility

  • Section 508 & Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires electronic communications and information technologies, such as websites, email, or web documents, be accessible. For video content, closed captions are a specific requirement.

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act protects the civil rights of people with disabilities by requiring all federal entities — and organizations that receive federal funding — to make accommodations for equal access. This means that closed captioning must be provided for users who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Whom this law applies to:

    US federal offices and all their digital or physical services and communications; organizations that receive federal funding; universities or colleges that receive federal grants.

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    Sections 508 and 504: Closed Captioning and Web Accessibility Requirements

  • FCC Closed Captioning Regulations

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates interstate and international communication via television, radio, and the internet. They set strict guidelines for closed captioning television programs and live broadcasts, with specific standards on caption accuracy, timing, placement, and completeness.

    While analog broadcasters have long had to caption all of their video content, some web video broadcasters are affected by FCC captioning rules.

    Whom this law applies to:

    Television broadcasters in the US; television content producers; television content distributors, online or analog; film producers and distributors in the US.

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    FCC Updates for Closed Captioning of Online Video: Are You Compliant?

  • 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA)

    Passed in 2010, the CVAA addresses closed captioning for online video. Specifically, it applies to all online video that previously aired on US television with closed captions. This content must comply to analog FCC closed captioning regulations, including quality standards for timing, placement, accuracy, and completeness.

    The CVAA applies to web video streaming sites that distribute TV shows online, as well as media sites that include movie trailers, clips, and soon, montages. Deadlines for compliance benchmarks have been rolling out for the past few years, and more deadlines are on the horizon (see timeline to the right).

    Whom this law applies to:

    Websites that stream or offer downloadable English or Spanish video that previously aired on American television with captions.

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    CVAA Online Video Captioning Requirements and Deadlines

US State Accessibility LawsJump to Top

    Many states have adopted Section 508 federal regulations into their own laws (“little 508s”), requiring state government entities to comply with federal accessibility standards. Some states created their own accessibility laws based on Section 508 or other standards.

    Click on the map below to learn more about captioning and web accessibility laws in your state.


International Accessibility LawsJump to Top


  • Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA)

    The AODA sets accessibility requirements for organizations in Ontario, Canada with the aim of creating a universally accessible province by 2025. It categorizes businesses by size and ownership (public vs. private), with slightly different rules for each.

    The AODA is the most progressive accessibility law in the world. It requires WCAG 2.0 compliance for every public and private organization, except for private organizations with fewer than 50 employees. Closed captioning is required for all video content.

    Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)

    In 2007, Canada’s broadcast industry established two closed captioning working groups under the direction of the CRTC. The goal of these working groups was to form captioning standards that would ensure consistent and reliable closed captioning quality throughout the Canadian broadcasting system. The CRTC formed several policies based on these groups, that would address quality and quantity of captions, as well as monitoring, and a mode of filing complaints regarding closed captioning.

    The CRTC requires most broadcasters to caption 100% of their programs during a broadcast day, between 6 AM and midnight. They must also ensure that 100% of advertising, sponsorship messages, and promotional content is captioned. Finally, they must provide viewers with closed captioning – if captions are available – for all programming aired overnight, from midnight to 6 AM.

    The CRTC also set quality standards for captioning. For pre-recorded programs, broadcasters must strive for a 100% accuracy rate. Live programing holds a slightly lower percentage at 85% for French and 95% for English. This difference between French and English is due to the closed captioning techniques which are used by each market.

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    Accessibility in Ontario: How the AODA Impacts Web and Online Video

    Read the blog post:

    Canadian CRTC Caption Laws

  • United Kingdom

  • The Equality Act (EQA)

    The EQA consolidated 116+ anti-discrimination laws into a single bill that protects individuals’ civil rights regardless of gender, sex, age, religion, political affiliation, disability, marriage status, or sexual orientation. Employers are required to make “reasonable adjustments” to accommodate people with disabilities. Accessibility requirements such as closed captioning videos extend to public entities and universities, as well.

    British National Standard 8878

    BS 8878 is a national standard that set accessibility recommendations for all electronic products, services, and information. It outlines an actionable accessibility strategy and provides templates for writing your organization’s accessibility policy statement.

    Ofcom Regulations

    Similar to the FCC in America, Ofcom regulates British telecommunications and broadcast media. It is responsible for setting standards, rules, and deadlines for closed captioning in the UK. The Ofcom Code on Television Access Services sets a schedule of accessibility compliance for broadcasters with annual deadlines spread over 10 years. By the end of the 10th year, at least 80% of the broadcaster’s content must have subtitles.

    Communications Act of 2003

    The Communications Act of 2003 granted Ofcom full regulatory authority of telecommunications and broadcast media in the UK. In addition to other major rule changes, the Communications Act increased requirements for UK broadcasters to provide ‘television access services,’ like subtitling, sign language, and audio descriptions. Section 303 of the Communications Act compels Ofcom to enact rules about TV access services, along with deadline for compliance.

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    UK Web Accessibility and Subtitle Regulations

  • Australia

  • Broadcasting Services Act

    The Broadcasting Services Act gave Australian parliament power to set requirements for closed captioning of broadcast media. An amendment to the act specified caption compliance for public television: 100% of public TV programming aired between 6am-12am and all news and current affairs footage must be closed captioned.

    ACMA Regulations

    Similar to the FCC in the US or Ofcom in Britain, the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) regulates broadcasting, including closed captioning rules. They set guidelines on acceptable formatting, style, and caption display.

    Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)

    Comparable to the Americans with Disabilities Act in the US or the Equality Act in Great Britain, the DDA protects the civil rights of individuals with disabilities and mandates certain accommodations for them. Section 24 of the DDA requires all free or paid goods, services, or facilities to be made accessible. Subsequent disability discrimination lawsuits have establish that this applies to Australian websites or other digital products or services.

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    Web Accessibility and Closed Captioning in Australia & New Zealand

  • New Zealand

  • Web Accessibility Standard

    New Zealand’s Web Accessibility Standard established rules for accessible design of government websites at the state and federal level. It largely mimics WCAG 2.0 design standards. According to the standard, web video requires closed captions for prerecorded content within 10 business days of posting. Live captioning is required for “high stakes information or services,” such as public safety announcements or election news.

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    Web Accessibility and Closed Captioning in Australia & New Zealand

  • Philippines

  • Republic Act No. 10905

    In 2016, the Republic Act No. 10905, entitled “An Act Requiring All Franchise Holders or Operators of Television Stations and Producers of Television Programs to Broadcast or Present Their Programs With Closed Caption Options,” lapsed into law.

    The law requires that broadcast television in the Philippines have closed captions on all programming, with some exceptions.

    Broadcasters who fail to provide closed captioning are subject to fines, jail time, or having their broadcasting license revoked.

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    Closed Captioning in the Philippines

  • Ireland

  • Disability Act 2005

    Ireland reached an accessibility and inclusion milestone with the Disability Act 2005, which mandated that public services be made accessible and inclusive for all people regardless of disability.

    Notably, the Act requires that when a ‘public body’ communicates electronically, the contents of the communication must be “accessible to persons with a visual impairment to whom adaptive technology is available.”

    The National Disability Authority has produced a legally binding Code of Practice, which outlines how to meet the requirements of the Act, using the WCAG 2.0 AA standard.

    In accordance with WCAG 2.0 Level AA, it is required to provide captions for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. Captions must also be provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.

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    Closed Captioning in Ireland

  • South Africa

  • The Equality Act (PEPUDA)

    The Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, also known as PEPUDA, or the Equality Act, became law in the year 2000. It states that “neither the State nor any person may unfairly discriminate against any person.”

    Discrimination, in this piece of legislation, is defined as “any act or omission, including a policy, law, rule, practice, condition or situation which directly or indirectly A) imposes burdens, obligations or disadvantages on; or B) withholds benefits, opportunities, or advantages from any person on one or more of the prohibited grounds,” which include the grounds of disability.

    Chapter 9 of the Equality Act, Prohibition of unfair discrimination on the basis of disability, also states that “no person may discriminate against any person on the ground of disability,” including “failing to eliminate obstacles that unfairly limit or restrict persons with disabilities from enjoying equal opportunities or failing to take steps to reasonably accommodate the needs of such persons.”

    Promotion of Access to Information Act

    The Promotion of Access to Information (PAIA) of 2000 states “right of access to any information held by a public or private body may be limited to the extent that the limitations are reasonable and justifiable in an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality, and freedom.”

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    Video Accessibility in South Africa

Accessibility Laws by IndustryJump to Top

    Company Training Videos

  • Title I & Title II

    Providing accessible company training videos is covered under both Title I and Title II of the ADA.

    Title I prohibits employers and government agencies from discriminating against qualified individuals on the basis of a disability.

    Under Title II, disabled employees must not be barred from performing responsibilities because of inaccessible processes or procedures. Therefore state and local entities need to caption videos for internal communication and training, as well as public‐facing material.

    The ADA requires an employer to make reasonable accommodation for the disability of a qualified applicant or employee, as long as it would not impose an “undue hardship” on the operation of the business.

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    Accessibility Laws for Company Training Videos

  • Public Websites

  • Title III

    Title III of the ADA covers places public accommodation, requiring that they provide auxiliary aids and services to ensure effective communication with individuals with disabilities. Over the last several years, courts have been ruling in support of web and video accessibility, extending the term “place of public accommodation” to online communities, in addition to brick and mortar facilities.

    Section 508

    Section 508 is a federal anti-discrimination law which applies to federal and federally funded programs in their treatment of individuals with disabilities. Section 508 expands the Rehabilitation Act to include equal access to electronic and information technology, requiring that accessible alternatives by provided to individuals with disabilities.

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    Accessibility Laws for Public Websites

  • K-12 Schools

  • Title II

    Title II of the ADA prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local and state level, including K-12 schools. These schools are required to comply with many regulations.

    Section 504 & Section 508

    Section 504 prohibits K-12 schools from denying participation in education or extracurriculars due to a child’s disability. It also expands the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to protect a broader range of children with disabilities.

    Section 508 relates to electronic and information technology, and covers access to federal programs and services. Several regulations require these programs to provide accessible tech and web content. For example, the Assistive Technology Act will not provide funding to states unless they guarantee compliance with Section 508.

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    IDEA ensures that students with disabilities are provided Free Appropriate Public Education that meets their individual needs.

    State Laws

    Many states have enacted their own accessibility laws similar to Section 508.

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    Accessibility Laws for K-12 Schools

  • Private Colleges

  • Section 504

    Section 504 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs and activities that receive federal funding.

    Section 508

    While Section 508 doesn’t apply to colleges that don’t receive federal funding directly, many grants require that materials created within the funding meet 508 standards. Therefore, Section 508 may still apply to some private institutions.

    Title III

    Title III prohibits disability discrimination by “places of public accommodation” including universities that are privately owned.

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    Accessibility Laws for Private Colleges

  • Religious Institutions

  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federal programs and activities, federal electronic and information technology, and any program receiving federal assistance.

    21st Century Video Accessibility Act

    The CVAA states that all online video previously aired on television is required to have closed captioning (including clips and montages).

    State Laws

    Many states have enacted their own accessibility laws that apply to religious institutions.

    Want to learn more?

    Read the blog post:

    Accessibility Laws for Religious Institutions

  • State Governments

  • Section 504

    Section 504 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs and activities that receive federal funding.

    Section 508

    While it’s debated if Section 508 applies to state governments, there are several instances where the law does apply and states do need to comply.For example, many states have enacted their own “mini 508” laws that apply the following requirements.

    Title II

    Title II mandates that public entities cannot refuse to accommodate people with disabilities and must provide the necessary aids for such individuals to have equal access.

    Want to learn more?

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    Accessibility Laws for State Governments

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