Accessibility in Schools: US Laws for K-12
Updated: April 6, 2021
Discrimination of any kind should not be tolerated anywhere, but especially in the classroom. Understanding accessibility laws and anti-discrimination laws that apply to K-12 schools can be a bit tricky. Here’s a break down of the accessibility laws apply to K-12 schools and what exactly each of them mean.
ADA Title II
Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local and state level. This includes schools. Under Title II schools – regardless of whether they receive federal funds – are required to comply with several regulations:
- May not refuse to allow a person with a disability to participate in a service, program, or activity simply because the person has a disability.
- Must provide programs and services in an integrated setting, unless separate or different measures are necessary to ensure equal opportunity.
- Must eliminate unnecessary eligibility standards or rules that deny individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to enjoy their services, programs or activities unless “necessary” for the provisions of the service, program or activity.
- Are required to make reasonable modifications in policies, practices, and procedures that deny equal access to individuals with disabilities, unless a fundamental alteration in the program would result.
- Must furnish auxiliary aids and services when necessary to ensure effective communication, unless an undue burden or fundamental alteration would result.
- May provide special benefits, beyond those required by the regulation, to individuals with disabilities.
- May not place special charges on individuals with disabilities to cover the costs of measures necessary to ensure nondiscriminatory treatment, such as making modifications required to provide program accessibility or providing qualified interpreters.
- Shall operate their programs so that, when viewed in their entirety, they are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Section 504 leaves nothing up for questioning regarding civil rights for individuals with disabilities. It clearly states:
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
Section 508 became an amendment to the Rehabilitation Act in 1998 when an older version of the law was updated. This section covers access to federal programs and services in regards to electronic and information technology. Section 508 is a bit more ambiguous than Section 504, as it’s unclear to some, whether federally funded programs must comply with Section 508. Despite this, there are other regulations which require these programs to provide accessible tech and web content. One example of this is the Assistive Technology Act, which will not provide funding to states unless they guarantee compliance with Section 508.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) ensures students with a disability are provided with Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that meets their specific individual needs. IDEA was previously known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) from 1975 to 1990, at which time it became IDEA. The overarching purpose of IDEA is to afford children with disabilities the same opportunity for education as those students without disabilities.
IDEA is composed of six main elements to further its purpose. These six elements are:
- Individualized Education Program (IEP)
- Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
- Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
- Appropriate Evaluation
- Parent and Teacher Participation
- Procedural Safeguards
In addition to these six key elements, there are a few other components of IDEA, including: Confidentiality of Information, Transition Services, and Discipline.
In addition to federal laws, many states have their own accessibility laws. Typically, these laws reference or emulate Section 508, covering technology. In addition, the 2004 amendments to the IDEA require each state to develop a State Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR) that evaluates the state’s efforts to implement the requirements and purposes of the IDEA, and describes how the state will improve its implementation.
Click on this interactive map for more information on state-specific accessibility laws.
3 Reasons Why You Need Video Transcription
Video transcription is the process of translating your video’s audio into text using automatic speech recognition technology, human transcriptionists, or a combination of the two. Without video transcription, your videos rely solely on audiovisual material to convey information. What motivates a video…
Recommended Resources: Online Learning Accessibility & Policy
We may be accessibility experts, but we certainly didn’t get here without doing our research. That’s why we’ve compiled this industry-specific resource guide on the implementation of online learning accessibility policies & best practices at institutions of higher education. Read through our…
WebVTT Captions: How to Create a Web Video Text Track File
A “Web Video Text Track” file, also known as WebVTT (.vtt), is a popular subtitle and caption file format. WebVTT was created in 2010 by the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) to support text tracks in HTML5. WebVTT was broadly…